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St Peters Lutheran College Langer Library website: AI

Large Language Models: How They Work

Copyright and AI

Schools can use AI platforms in many ways.

Check the Smartcopying advice (link above) on creating works, ownership, protection and labelling of works.


Inserting documents and data into AI tools: 

Check the copyright on any item inserted into an AI tool to avoid infringement. This includes uploading copyrighted documents to an AI tool, adding school course materials, articles, readings or lesson notes.

What is AI?

Britannica defines Artificial intelligence (AI) as the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. 

Without realizing you have been interacting with AI in many ways everyday including Siri, Alexa and even Library borrowing platforms like Libby: 

Library Resources

006.3 BAK                  006.3 MAC             006.3 POT           303.483 BOM        303.483 NGU


Prompt Creation

Interacting with AI differs from traditional keyword searching because it is modelled from human language and learning. Include in your prompts : intent + content+ instruction. Consider these things when inputting prompts into any generative AI

  1. Specificity.  Include all the information that might help retrieve and organize the output. This can include specifying things like tone, voice, audience, previous research, length, or type of output you expect.
  2. Context. Give the AI background information. Who and what the output is for are key considerations. 
  3. Manners. AI has been trained on human learning and data; polite behavior tends to give better results. 
  4. Constraints. Provide constraining details about the kind of output required. This can include a word limit, a time limit or a file limit. 
  5. Iterative behavior. "Try, try again.” Rewriting and recrafting a prompt will help both you and the AI get an output that is useful. In the same way that you might add words to a search query, work similarly with an AI prompt. If it isn’t working one way, try a different way. The AI is also training and building upon the initial prompt data. 
  6. Feedback. AI are trained by your input. If the output is incorrect, too long, too short, with the wrong tone, wrong information, or wrong structure, you need to reply with that so it can learn. Consider the prompt as a conversation because until you begin a new prompt, it is.


*** Adapted from here: An AI Toolbox for Librarians | School Library Journal (


Character, Request, Examples, Adjustments, Type, Extras, Refine

Character give the AI a role or context. e.g. "SOSE teacher teaching Australian Curriculum to a Year 9 class" 

Request the specific required task you need help with e,g, "4-5 ideas for...", "summarise the following text...", "generate 5 questions" 

Examples providing samples can give more precise outputs: tone examples, high-level responses, and level descriptions 

Adjustments consider the constraints e.g. "short sentences only", "understood by a young adult", "between 100-200 words"

Type (of output) specify the required format e.g. essay, activity plan, numbered list, presentation, email...

Extras consider adding unique instructions 

Refine have the AI rewrite the output with alterations e.g. "more natural language", "with more humour", "provide 2 more examples" 

Remember that this is an iterative process  and you can build and refine the output by removing undesired aspects and adding elements. 

Australian Framework for Generative AI Use



AI Concerns

Artificial Intelligence has raised many ethical concerns including copyright infringement, learning biases, and misinformation.

AI platforms also collect vast amounts of personal information across platforms creating significant privacy concerns. 

Thousands of authors urge AI companies to stop using work without permission

Exclusive: GPT-4 readily spouts misinformation, study finds

ChatGPT is a data privacy nightmare. If you’ve ever posted online, you ought to be concerned

Citing AI

* Always check if AI can be used in an assessment task.
* If an AI’s output significantly influences your work, it should be cited


Use a standard citation format adjusting it to fit the AI used 



APA Style:
  • Author(s). (Year).  Title of AI generator (model and year). [Type of AI model used and year]. URL.
  • Example –  Open AI. (2023). ChatGPT (Dec 3 version) [Large language model].


Quote AI-Generated Text

If you’re directly quoting text from an AI platform, treat it the same as a direct quotation with quotation marks and providing an in-text citation.

Paraphrase with Care

When paraphrasing AI-generated content, ensure that you are genuinely synthesizing the information, rather than altering a few words.

Verify AI-Generated Content

Always verify the accuracy of AI-generated content against reliable sources. AI can make errors or generate misleading information. These can be called AI hallucinations and can even include generated references.

SmartCopying AI Recommendations

In Australia, copyright protects original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works (eg poems, plays, sheet music and photos). It also protects other subject-matter such as sound recordings and films. Copyright protection automatically arises when original works are created by human authorship using “independent intellectual effort”.

Whether copyright will be found to subsist in the output of generative AI platforms will depend on a number of factors including the type of AI platform used, what human prompts are given to the platform and the form of the final output.

If copyright subsists in the output generated using AI, the next question is: who owns that copyright? There are a number of factors to consider, including the relevant platform’s terms of use.

All generative AI platforms will have terms and conditions. These terms and conditions may contain an assignment of the copyright in any output generated by the platform from the platform to the user or a licence to use the output.

Schools should check the terms and conditions to ensure that any copyright subsisting in the output is assigned to the user of the platform. This will help to ensure that, if there are instances where the platform owns copyright, it is assigned to the user


Citing AI Generated Materials 

Unless the terms and conditions of the particular AI tool explicitly state otherwise, schools should label new works created using AI platforms in the following way:

“This work was generated using [insert name of AI tool]. Any copyright subsisting in this work is owned by [INSERT Dept of Education/Administering Body].”

Where there is no assignment of copyright from the AI platform, but instead a licence granted (including under Creative Commons), you must ensure that you comply with the terms of that licence, including any requirements regarding attribution.